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Table 3 The polyphenols mechanisms of action against human diseases

From: Isolation and characterization of polyphenols in natural honey for the treatment of human diseases

Mechanism Polyphenol Action
Cell cycle arrest at various sequential phases, G0/G1, G1 and G2/ in different cancer cell line (Aliyu et al. 2012)
Induces apoptosis and disrupts the mitochondrial membrane potential (Erejuwa et al. 2014)
Inhibition of angiogenesis (Fauzi et al. 2011)
Caffeic acid Chrysin
Kaempferol
Quercetin
Antineoplastic
Anti-proliferative
Anti-metastatic
Anticancer
Inhibition of the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines
(TNF-α, COX-2) (Jaganathan et al. 2011)
Suppression of lipopolysaccharide-induced COX-2 expression via the inhibition of nuclear factor for IL-6 DNA-binding activity (Hussein et al. 2012)
Inhibition of MMP-9 expression in HaCAT (one among the main mediator responsible for destructive effect in chronic wound) (Woo et al. 2005)
Suppression of TNF-α induced MMP-9 expression by modulating AKt signaling in endothelial cells (Majtan et al. 2013)
Apigenin
Caffeic acid Chrysin
Kaempferol
Anti-inflammatory
Inhibition of acid secretions (Vilegas et al. 1999)
Increase the level of mucosal prostaglandins (Majtan et al. 2013)
Kaempferol
Myricetin
Quercetin
Antiulcer
Sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release inhibition (de RV et al. 1996)
Bind divalent metal ion, thereby preventing free radical formation (Narayana et al. 2001)
Inhibition of pro-coagulant activity of adherent white blood cell (Raj and Shalini 1999)
Apigenin,
Flavonoids
Luteolin
Cardiovascular effects
Formation of complex with proteins, forces as hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic effects, and covalent bond formation (Cowan 1999)
Formation of hydrogen bond and stacking of nucleic acid bases, thereby inhibiting DNA and RNA synthesis in bacteria (Kumar and Pandey 2013)
Phenolic acids Antibacterial
Altering fluid in outer and inner membrane of hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions (Tsuchiya and Iinuma 2000)
Inhibition of enzymes related to the and viral polymerase, binding of viral nucleic acid or capsid proteins (Viuda-Martos et al. 2008)
Inhibition of viral transcription thereby preventing HIV-1 activation (Critchfield et al. 1996)
Acacetin
Apigenin
Chrysin
Naringenin
Antiviral
  1. TNF-α tumor necrosis factor alpha, COX-2 cyclooxygenase-2, IL-6 interleukin 6, MMP-9 matrix metallopeptidase 9, HaCAT immortalized human keratinocyte, AKt protein kinase B