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Table 2 The bioactive flavonoid and phenolic acid compounds found in honey

From: Isolation and characterization of polyphenols in natural honey for the treatment of human diseases

Honey origin Polyphenols Honey type
Brazil Naringenin, quercetin, isorhamnetin, gallic acid, vanillic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, coumaric acid Stingless bee honey (da Silva et al. 2013)
Bulgaria Gallic acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, protocatechuic acid Eucalyptus, lime, chestnut, heather, lavender, acacia, rosemary, orange, sunflower, and rapeseed honey (Dimitrova et al. 2007)
Malaysia Gallic acid, syringic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, benzoic acid, naringenin, trans-cinnamic acid, luteolin Tualang, Gelam, Borneo tropical honey (Khalil et al. 2011)
New Zealand Gallic acid, caffeic acid, ellagic acid, quercetin, isorhamnetin, chrysin, luteolin, kaempferol Manuka honey (Yao et al. 2004)
Poland Rhamnetin, naringenin, quercetin, rutin, hesperidin, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid, syringic acid.= Heather honey (Biesaga and Pyrzyńska 2013)
West Amazonian Ecuador Coumarins, fraxin, scopoletin, bergamottin, luteolin-7-glucoside, luteolin, quercetin, naringenin, isorhamnetin Ecuadorian meliponinae and apis honey (Guerrini et al. 2009)