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Table 1 Characterization of polyphenols as verified by different chromatography techniques

From: Isolation and characterization of polyphenols in natural honey for the treatment of human diseases

Polyphenols Honey samples Eluents Chromatography techniques
Flavonoids
Apigenin Chesnutt Methanol HPLC (Can et al. 2015)
Catechin Heather Methanol HPLC (Can et al. 2015)
Catechol Stingless bee Methanol, ethyl acetate HPLC (da Silva et al. 2013)
Chrysin Lime Methanol GC-MS (Lachman et al. 2010)
Dihydrochrysin Lime Methanol GC-MS (Lachman et al. 2010)
Galangin Lime Methanol GC-MS (Lachman et al. 2010)
Hesperetin Gelam Methanol HPLC, LC-MS (Kassim et al. 2010b)
Isorhamnetin Acacia Methanol HPLC (Can et al. 2015)
Kaempferide Gelam Methanol LC-MS (Kassim et al. 2010b)
Kaempferol Gelam Methanol HPLC (Kassim et al. 2010b)
Luteolin Stingless bee Methanol, ethyl acetate HPLC (da Silva et al. 2013)
Myricetin Gelam Methanol HPLC (Kassim et al. 2010b)
Naringenin Stingless bee Methanol, ethyl acetate HPLC (da Silva et al. 2013)
Pinobanksin Buckwheat Ethanol, methanol, isopropanol LC-MS (Alvarez 2011)
Pinocembrin Buckwheat Ethanol, methanol, isopropanol LC-MS (Alvarez 2011)
Pinostrobin Buckwheat Ethanol, methanol, isopropanol LC-MS (Alvarez 2011)
HPLC, LC-MS (Alvarez 2011),
Quercetin Gelam Methanol LC-MS (Kassim et al. 2010b)
Quercetin-3-O-glucoside Gelam Methanol LC-MS (Kassim et al. 2010b)
Rhamnosyl naringenin Gelam Methanol HPLC (Kassim et al. 2010b)
Rutin Lavender Methanol GC-MS (Can et al. 2015)
Taxifolin Rape Methanol GC-MS (Lachman et al. 2010)
Tectochtysin Rape Methanol GC-MS (Lachman et al. 2010)
Phenolic acids
Abscisic acid Rape Methanol HPLC (Lachman et al. 2010)
Benzoic acid Gelam Methanol HPLC (Kassim et al. 2010b)
Caffeic acid Gelam Methanol HPLC (Kassim et al. 2010b)
Chlorogenic acid Stingless bee Methanol, ethyl acetate GC-MS (da Silva et al. 2013)
Cinnamic acid Lime Methanol HPLC, LC-MS (Lachman et al. 2010)
Dihydroxycinnamic acid Gelam Methanol LC-MS (Kassim et al. 2010b)
Ellagic acid Gelam Methanol LC-MS (Kassim et al. 2010b)
Ellagic-glucoside Gelam Methanol GC-MS (Kassim et al. 2010b)
Ellagitannins Rape Methanol HPLC (Lachman et al. 2010)
Ferulic acid Rape Methanol, ethyl acetate HPLC, LC-MS (da Silva et al. 2013)
Gallic acid Stingless bee Methanol HPLC (Kassim et al. 2010b)
p-Coumaric acid Gelam Methanol HPLC (Can et al. 2015)
Protocatechuic acid Chesnutt Methanol, ethyl acetate LC-MS (Kassim et al. 2010b)
Salicylic acid Stingless bee Methanol HPLC (da Silva et al. 2013)
Syringic acid Stingless bee Methanol HPLC (da Silva et al. 2013)
Vanillic acid Stingless bee Methanol LC-MS (Kassim et al. 2010b)