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Table 8 Therapeutic effect of P. ovata seed carbohydrates and fixed oil on kidney function indices of ketoprofen toxicity in rats

From: A therapeutic insight of carbohydrate and fixed oil from Plantago ovata L. seeds against ketoprofen-induced hepatorenal toxicity in rats

Groups Urea (mg/dl) Creatinine (mg/dl) Protein (g/L)
Control 43.50d ± 3.80
3.59g ± 0.28
73.75cd ± 2.63
P. ovata seed carbohydrates 47.40d ± 4.68
(+ 8.96)
4.15fg ± 0.29
(+ 15.60)
70.25 de ± 4.57
(− 4.74)
P. ovata seeds oil 54.06d ± 4.68
(+ 24.27)
4.40f ± 0.16
(+ 22.56)
65.75 de ± 4.39
(− 10.83)
Ketoprofen 127.93a ± 9.14
(+ 194.10)
11.93a ± 0.26
(+ 232.31)
92.25 a ± 4.57
(+ 25.08)
Ketoprofen +
P. ovata seed carbohydrates
80.62c ± 5.51
[− 36.98]
7.22e ± 0.81
[− 39.48]
80.50bc ± 3.70
[− 12.73]
Ketoprofen +
P. ovata seeds oil
83.08c ± 5.16
[− 35.06]
7.99d ± 0.28
[− 33.02]
82.75b ± 4.96
[− 10.30]
Ketoprofen +
Silymarin.
86.68c ± 5.53
[− 32.24]
7.34e ± 0.98
[− 38.47]
81.75bc ± 3.86
[− 11.38]
Ketoprofen left 1 week for recovery 119.48a ± 9.48
[− 6.60]
11.46ab ± 0.41
[− 3.93]
89.25ab ± 3.95
[− 3.25]
Ketoprofen left 2 weeks for recovery 98.31b ± 6.22
[− 23.15]
11.05b ± 0.48
[− 7.37]
84.50 b ± 3.70
[− 8.40]
Ketoprofen left 3 weeks for recovery 96.18bc ± 5.42
[− 24.81]
8.65c ± 0.36
[− 27.49]
81.50bc ± 6.75
[− 11.65]
  1. Data are mean ± SD of six rats/group
  2. Groups having the same letters are non- significantly different, while those having different letters are significantly different at p < 0.05
  3. Values between brackets are % changes over control group
  4. Values between parentheses are % changes over ketoprofen group