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Table 5 Therapeutic effect of P. ovata seed carbohydrates and fixed oil on hepatic oxidative stress markers of ketoprofen toxicity in rats

From: A therapeutic insight of carbohydrate and fixed oil from Plantago ovata L. seeds against ketoprofen-induced hepatorenal toxicity in rats

Groups SOD (μg /mg protein) GSH (μg/gm tissue) MDA (μmol/mg protein)
Control 18.17a ± 1.77
11.87a ± 1.36
1.53e ± 0.26
P. ovata seed carbohydrates 16.90ab ± 2.28
(− 6.98)
10.50b ± 0.94
(− 11.54)
1.59de ± 0.14
(+ 3.92)
P. ovata seeds oil 17.50 ab ± 2.04
(− 3.60)
10.30 b ± 0.56
(− 13.22)
1.92 cde ± 0.43
(+ 25.49)
Ketoprofen 8.00d ± 1.91
(− 55.97)
4.68e ± 0.57
(− 60.57)
4.70a ± 0.70
(+ 207.18)
Ketoprofen +
P. ovata seed carbohydrates
13.97bc ± 1.16
[+ 74.67]
9.20bc ± 0.30
[+ 96.58]
2.32cde ± 0.37
[− 49.56]
Ketoprofen +
P. ovata seeds oil
12.50bc ± 1.87
[+ 56.25]
8.50cd ± 0.73
[+ 81.62]
2.56bc ± 0.73
[− 44.34]
Ketoprofen +
Silymarin.
14.85abc ± 1.75
[+ 85.63]
8.70cd ± 1.18
[+ 85.89]
1.94cde ± 0.61
[− 57.82]
Ketoprofen left 1 week for recovery 8.07 d ± 2.44
[+ 0.80]
7.35 d ± 0.40
[+ 57.05]
3.18 b ± 0.25
[− 30.86]
Ketoprofen left 2 weeks for recovery 9.10d ± 1.27
[+ 13.75]
7.83cd ± 0.40
[+ 67.30]
2.67bc ± 0.29
[− 41.95]
Ketoprofen left 3 weeks for recovery 11.85c ± 1.59
[+ 48.12]
8.10cd ± 0.48
[+ 73.07]
2.45bcd ± 0.32
[− 46.73]
  1. Data are mean ± SD of six rats/group.
  2. Groups having the same letters are non-significantly different, while those having different letters are significantly different at p < 0.05
  3. Values between brackets are % changes over control group
  4. Values between parentheses are % changes over ketoprofen group